Tuesday, April 14, 2009

After reading through Chap. 10

1.) Describe the composition and function of blood (check your textbook). Why is monitoring blood and blood pressure so crucial to maintaining a patient's course of treatment?
(see Chap 8 MOAS)

2.) What type of information is gained from an autopsy? An autopsy involves cutting open the patient and removing and studying several organs. Would you give permission to have a deceased family member autopsied by the medical staff? Why? Why not? (see Chap 9 MOAS)


  1. 1. Blood is made up of a water-based solution called plasma. In the plasma is dissolved several important substances. The plasma is a salt solution and the main ions in the plasma are sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. All sorts of molecules like glucose, vitamins, hormones and wastes all circulate in the blood stream. It also has proteins dissolved in it. In this plasma are the actual blood cells. The red blood cells are referred to as hemocrit. Erythocytes are the flat red disks one thinks of when one thinks of blood on a molecular basis. They carry oxygen to the cells of the body. Leukocytes are the white blood cells that lack hemoglobin and defend the body from invaders. Finally, platelets are cells that contain no nuclei but play a very important role in clotting. Blood is an extremely important part of patient care because as Dr. Nolen said, it can mean the difference between a calm, rational patient and a quickly declining and irrational patient. Patients that bleed out decline very quickly because the blood flow that is needed to supply oxygen and other nutrients to the other side of the body is pouring out.
    2. Autopsies, as hated as they are to many doctors, seem to be an extremely important part of the medical process. Dr. Nolen always reminds the reader that medicine is not an infallible or perfect science; on the contrary, it is still evolving. The autopsy, therefore, provides the doctor an insight as to what happened, and perhaps what was missed. Presumably, the doctor should meditate on why they didn't make the diagnosis, and can maybe improve their methods of diagnosing a patient. I think that I couldn't decide for another person whether they should be autopsied, since it's such a personal matter. I would give permission for my self; because I think that if doctors could learn something from doing an autopsy on me, why not?

  2. 1) One of the major components in blood is plasma, making up slightly more than half of the total amount. The other half consists of red and white blood cells, hormones, gases, nutrients and antibodies. One of the main functions of blood is the transportation of oxygen, which is achieved when oxygen molecules bond to hemoglobin proteins.
    Monitoring the blood pressure of a patient is important because it can alert a doctor to something being wrong with the patient, such as bleeding, that might not be easily observed. In Dr. Nolen's example, what appeared to be a psychological problem was actually caused by a loss of blood.
    2) Autopsies allow doctors to see the mistakes they may of may not have made when trying to cure a patient. If a mistake has been made, then an autopsy is a tool the doctor can use to see where he or she went wrong, and not repeat the mistake. This is important because doctors could easily repeat the same mistake if they were convinced they were right.
    I would give permission to the staff to do an autopsy on a family member for two reasons. The first is it gives the doctors an opportunity to better themselves, and for doctors especially, this is important due to the magnitude of their work. Also, I believe it would provide some sort of closure, which is something I would prefer having.

  3. 1. Blood is a mixture of cells and a liquid called plasma. It also contains other things like nutrients, hormones, clotting agents, and waste products to be flushed out of the body. There are three types of cells in blood, red, white and platelets. Red blood cells are shaped like tiny doughnuts, with an indentation in the center instead of a hole. They contain a special molecule called hemoglobin, which carries the oxygen. White blood cells (leukocytes) are the body's mobile warriors in the battle against infection and invasion. The blood cells called platelets (thrombocytes) help blood to clot. Monitoring blood levels and blood pressure give doctors crucial information as to how the patient is holding up. If either is too low or too high, the doctor knows somethings wrong very quickly and can work to fix it.

    2. An autopsy is crucial because it lets doctors know why their patients actually died. Doctors do their best to treat patients but inevitably a patient will die. Thus it is an important learning process for doctors. However, I am still not sure if I would grant a doctor permission to do an autopsy. Dr. Nolen comments how relatives let doctors operate of their 90 year old mothers without hesitation, but hesitate to give permission for an autopsy. I personally think this is an unfair comment. The 90 year old mother is alive and the doctor trying to save her when they open her up, as opposed to when shes dead and someone opens her up. Somehow it just feels wrong to me to tammper with a dead persons body. Ultimately, I am quite conflicted on whether I'd allow it or not.

  4. 1.Blood, the essential fluid in the human body, is composed of a complex solution of water known as the blood plasma. Within this 90 % water solution are metabolites (glucose, vitamins, hormones) and wastes and also salts, ions, and proteins. Blood is made up of three types of cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets which are cell fragments. Blood is transferred through the body via the cardiovascular system which is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and the blood itself. Vessels called arteries and capillaries transport the blood, carrying nutrients throughout the body. Monitoring a patient’s blood and blood pressure is important because it is a key indicator of the patient’s current state. If a patient is losing blood or has an abnormal blood pressure, the doctors can see this quickly and react. Blood-related issues generally call for fast responses because of their severity.
    2.The purpose of an autopsy, the dissection and examination of a dead body, is to learn about the mistakes that doctors made when the patient was alive, and also to learn more about the disease within the patient. By studying the dead body, doctors can see the body and examine organs in ways that they could not have when the patient was alive.
    I am not sure whether I would permit an autopsy on a relative. While I do understand that it would help doctors in the future, I I would feel allowing a relative to be cut up and used for research instead of being buried immediately. Perhaps it would depend on the disease that he or she had. If my relative had a rare disease whose cure was not well-known in the medical community, then I would certainly allow an autopsy because it would potentially help cure others with the same rare disease. However, if my relative had a common problem (on which there was abundant information) then I do not think I would allow an autopsy.

  5. About half of blood is composed of plasma, an aqueous solution, and the other half is a combination of red and white blood cells, hormones, vitamins, ions, and waste. The three main categories of blood cells are red, white, and platelet cells. Red blood cells hold the crucial protein hemoglobin, which is what enables these cells to carry oxygen throughout the bloodstream. White blood cells, called leukocytes, do not contain hemoglobin, but they protect the body from foreign things in the bloodstream. Platelets are very important for blood in our bodies because they are what enable blood to clot. If our blood could not clot, we would bleed to death from just a small scrape or bump.

    An autopsy enables doctors to closely examine patient's bodies to see what the medical problems were before the patient died. Information gained from an autopsy is very important, and it is often information that could not have been gained while the patient was alive. Obviously, it is preferable that the doctors would be able to keep a patient alive, with no need for an autopsy, but if the patient does die, I believe it is crucial that an autopsy is performed so that doctors can avoid repeating mistakes with future patients. I can understand how some people might have a personal problem with autopsies, but I have always been of the opinion that the person is dead anyway, and performing an autopsy is not messing around with the body, it is studying it for the benefit of others. I don't feel that it is disrespectful at all to scientifically study a dead body to obtain valuable medical information. I would most definitely allow an autopsy on a family member.

  6. 1. Blood consists of plasma: an aqueous solution—90% of it is water!—with dissolved metabolites (such as vitamins and hormones) and wastes, salts and ions (such as sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate), as well as proteins. Serum albumin is a major protein that serves to offset water’s natural tendency to undergo osmosis out of the blood. Blood also consists of cells: erythrocytes which contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen, leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets to assist in blood clotting. Blood circulates through the circulatory system to transport essential substances to the body and carry away wastes.
    Monitoring patients’ blood and blood pressures is crucial because those levels determine whether patients can undergo certain procedures or major surgeries with a high chance of survival. This data can also help doctors diagnose ailments more accurately. In the case of severe blood loss in one female patient, monitoring her blood made Dr. Nolen realize that she was not insane but actually suffered from shock.

    2. Data collected from autopsies help doctors learn more about a disease and ways that it can affect tissue and organs. This information, especially if coming from one of the doctor’s own patients, better informs the staff on how various treatment options influenced the outcome of the disease. For example, examining a patient who had died from cancer may involve studying tissue and tumors to learn more about how and where the cancer spread, and in addition to the ways in which surgery or therapy affected the tumors. I personally do not think that I would give permission to have a deceased family member autopsied, because I would not be comfortable with the idea of him/her being dissected and “studied.” I understand and respect the importance of autopsies, and I even agree that they are essential to contributing to medical knowledge. I may feel different if performing an autopsy would significantly help doctors learn more about a rare and special case in order for them to better serve other patients with a similar illness. However, generally and currently, I personally would not feel an autopsy would be appropriate for a close family member.

  7. 1.) Blood is composed of about plasma and other cells that circulate within the plasma fluid. The plasma is a solution of about 90% water that contains red blood cells (99%) and white blood cells and platelets (1%). The plasma takes up around 55% of the volume of blood, while the red blood cells take up most of the other 45%. Blood has many functions including: transporting oxygen, fighting infections, supplying nutrients, removing waste, transporting signals (hormones), and regulating body norms. Oxygen transport is a main function, happening when oxygen bonds to hemoglobin on the red blood cells. Another main function is the white blood cells. These blood cells fight off infections and attacks on the body. Monitoring blood pressure and blood can easily help a doctor spot something wrong with the patient. Blood is so key that any serious difference is a sure sign of something wrong. Monitoring these changes can be the difference between life and death, so often check ups are necessary.

    2.) Autopsies can be very helpful for future knowledge of diseases. In many cases the causes and effects of diseases are unknown. Autopsies give doctors (or anyone) more information on a certain case once the deceased patient is examined. They can help to eliminate previous errors made by doctors, as well as create new ways to treat a patient that might be more beneficial. All in all autopsies are only helpful and valuable, and there would be no reason not to do one. Personally I signed up for organ donation when I die, and the rest of my family did too. There is no real moral difference in these, and I would definitely give permission for a doctor to do an autopsy on a family member (as long as he/she is dead).

  8. 1). Describe the composition and function of blood (check your textbook). Why is monitoring blood and blood pressure so crucial to maintaining a patient's course of treatment?
    (see Chap 8 MOAS)

    Blood is made up of plasma (a water solution with other substances dissolved in it) and different cells that circulate through the plasma. Plasma contains glucose, vitamins, hormones and wastes that move between body cells, salts and ions such as sodium, chloride and bicarbonate and other trace salts like calcium and zinc as well as others, and proteins that ensure that the plasma won’t lose its water through osmosis into the cells of the body. The most common protein present in the plasma is serum albumin which functions as the most important osmotic counterforce. Floating in the plasma are erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet cells. Erythrocytes (or red blood cells) transport oxygen and carbon dioxide through the body. They are basically sacks filled with hemoglobin a protein that fixes oxygen in the lungs so that it can be transported through the body by the erythrocytes. Erythrocytes are synthesized in bone marrow. Leukocytes (or white blood cells) defend the body by attacking foreign invaders of the body. Neutrophils are leukocytes that kill foreign substances by releasing chemicals that kill everything around the neutrophil, including the neutrophil itself. Monocytes kill foreign substances by releasing macrophages that eat the foreign substance. B cells create antibodies and T cells kill infected cells. B and T cells are both lymphocytes. Platelets are pieces of the cytoplasm of cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes. Platelets help blood clot, a process by which blood vessels repair themselves.
    The amount and circulation of blood keeps blood moving through a patient’s veins. It is critical to the patient’s survival because of all the functions the blood plays in a human body. These functions include transportation of waste and metabolic products and supplies as performed by the plasma, transportation of oxygen by red blood cells (erythrocytes) and defense of the body’s cells by white blood cells (leukocytes). If blood level or blood circulation levels get low then the patient is at risk of further problems because their body cannot perform these critical functions as well or at all.

    2.) What type of information is gained from an autopsy? An autopsy involves cutting open the patient and removing and studying several organs. Would you give permission to have a deceased family member autopsied by the medical staff? Why? Why not? (see Chap 9 MOAS)

    I would allow a pathologist to cut open one of my deceased family members because an autopsy might reveal something that could save another patient. I wouldn’t have to watch them cut open the body and I probably wouldn’t see the body again until it was prettied up and in the coffin (and if they were to be cremated then never). I think it is an unnecessary luxury to deny a doctor the opportunity to learn through an autopsy. I would rather my family member contributed to the furthering of medical knowledge than just got put in the ground. If doctors can autopsy the body then my family member has contributed to human kind even in death.

  9. 1. The blood that flows through our body is composed mainly of an aqueous solution known as plasma. The various solutes of this fluid, which is mostly water, include metabolites, waste, ions, salts, and proteins such as hormones. Blood fluid transports these molecules to where they are needed in the body. The rest of the blood stream is made up of three types of blood cells. Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are the most abundant. They are responsible for the movement of oxygen to every area of our body so that cellular respiration can occur. These cells rely on hemoglobin, a huge and complex organic substance that makes up most of their mass, to help transport the oxygen to its destination. White blood cells, or leukocytes, are a part of the immune system, targeting foreign bodies with the body and fighting off infections. The last cell type is a platelet, which is in fact only a fragment of a megakaryocyte cell that resides in bone marrow. These let our blood clot so that cuts and scrapes can heal.
    Because blood performs such varied and important functions, it is crucial that a patient's blood be flowing correctly and for that blood to be operating as it should. Blood transfusion are often important for patients who have lost so much blood due to injury or surgery that they can no longer circulate materials they need throughout their entire body. Oxygen flow is especially important for the brain, and without a function blood stream severe brain trauma can occur due to this lack of oxygen.

    2. An autopsy gives a medical team an opportunity to look closer at the circumstances surrounding a certain deceased patient. They are able, through careful examination of certain organs, to get a better idea of what bodily functions went wrong and caused this person to die. This is important to doctors so that they can learn from their mistakes but also so that they can understand situations that have not come up before. A doctor may act best given the situation and still be unable to save a patient. This look back into the person's organs can sometimes provide clues that doctors otherwise could not have been attained and that will sometimes help they deal with that problem better in the future.
    That said, I think I would feel comfortable allowing a doctor to perform an autopsy on my family member if I felt that it would grant this type of opportunity. If there were certain complications or uncertainties in this family member's condition that the doctors think they could learn more about through an autopsy then I would certainly have no problems allowing it, and even if it was only going to be a practice autopsy for medical students there could be value in the process. I think if there was no real need or opportunity for the better the doctors' knowledge or surgical experience then I would have to say I preferred for it not to happen. I wouldnt want them just looking around to see what they could find without any clear goals.

  10. 1) Blood is composed of blood cells suspended in plasma, a liquid that holds ions, salts, and other elements of the bloodstream. Plasma is mainly water, while both red and white blood cells are suspended in it. Blood is most important in the flow of oxygen throughout the body, necessary for all cells to function, being the final receptor in the electron transport chain. Without blood moving rapidly throughout the body, it would quickly shut down. Red blood cells are the most common blood cells in vertebrate. They carry oxygen by making it more soluble in water, thus being able to travel throuth the blood stream.White blood cells, largely present in jawed vertebrates (who have an adaptive immune system), is responsible for resisting parasites and bacteria.Blood pressure and blood is so crucial for a patient to remain stable because with a significant amount of blood loss, bodily function would be weakened and eventually become impossible. Especially in surgery where blood may be lost rapidly, a patient needs to maintain a solid blood level.

    2) In an autopsy, doctors look at a dead body to see exactly how it died, by looking at the different organs. The doctors cut the body open, mostly as an attempt to figure out if they had errors in their diagnoses. They remove the heart, the kidney, the liver, and other organs and examine them. Autopsies are done largely for educational purposes, yet they also let doctors learn from their mistakes. Often unclaimed bodies are sent to medical classes to be disected and studied. If a family member of mine deceased, I would not give permission for an autopsy to be performed unless it was a genetic or contageous disease that could affect others. I would much rather my family member's body be untouched after death.

  11. 1.) Describe the composition and function of blood (check your textbook). Why is monitoring blood and blood pressure so crucial to maintaining a patient's course of treatment?
    (see Chap 8 MOAS)

    The primary fluid in blood is blood plasma. Blood plasma is a water solution with many different things dissolved; it is 90% water, but also has glucose, vitamins, hormones and waste that travels through the body. It also carries protein so that it doesn’t lose its water content to cellular osmosis. The primary cell in blood is the Eryhrocyte, which carries hemoglobin. These are the iconic blood cells which carry oxygen to cells throughout the body. There are also many varieties of white blood cells, which help defend against foreign invaders. The final cells in blood are platelets; platelets are pinched off bits of bone marrow that help to promote clotting in damaged blood vessels. Monitoring blood pressure is important because blood pressure will ultimitately determine the fate of your patient. As Nolen shows, it’s always simple to tell whether a patient is bleeding profusely, and without the regular measuring of blood pressure, it’s difficult to know if blood is being lost. When blood is lost, patients become irrational and uncooperative, and will eventually bleed out.

    2.) What type of information is gained from an autopsy? An autopsy involves cutting open the patient and removing and studying several organs. Would you give permission to have a deceased family member autopsied by the medical staff? Why? Why not? (see Chap 9 MOAS)
    An autopsy serves to confirm a diagnosis, as well as helping doctors to understand any possible mistakes they have made. An autopsy is useful to confirm a diagnosis if it was difficult to make while still alive, but is even more useful in instructing doctors in their ways so that they won’t make the same errors in further patients. I would probably consent to an autopsy on a family member as long as I wasn’t planning on an open casket funeral or something of the sort. I would certainly consent if there was a medical error of some sort of the diagnosis was incomplete; otherwise, I would have to think careful whether I would want the body of a loved one to be vivisected by intrepid medical students eager to increase their knowledge of the human form. Something about it makes me uncomfortable, but if there was anything to be gained from it, I would consent.

  12. 1. Blood consists of cells and plasma containing a mixture of ions, salts, wastes, hormones, and proteins. Plasma makes up approximately one half of blood, and is a solution made up of primarily water, with the aforementioned products dissolved in it. The cells, which make up the other half of the body’s blood, are split up into three categories. The first are the red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, and distribute oxygen to the body through the blood stream. The second are the white blood cells, also known as the leukocytes, and are responsible for defense against any unidentified objects that are encountered. The third are the platelets, and they help the blood to clot. As can be observed from all the three types of blood cell’s functions, blood is extremely important to the function of the body. In particular, without enough blood, oxygen cannot be distributed to vital areas of the body such as the brain.

    2. Autopsies are essential to the growth of both doctors and medicine. Not only do they help doctors avoid making a mistake for a second time, by alerting them to the cause of death more accurately than could be done with a live patient, but they also help further medicine as a whole. By helping doctors to realize their errors when treating a disease, autopsies are a useful tool in learning more about that disease and its possible treatment methods. On a personal level, I maintain the notion that autopsies are necessary for the advancement of our knowledge of medicine, so I feel it is my responsibility to allow for an autopsy to be done on any deceased family member who I am legally responsible for.

  13. 1) Blood’s main function in the human body is to transport necessary nutrients and substances, such as oxygen and water, to the various parts of the body as well as take away waste material from those parts. It’s made up of plasma, (an aqueous solution that also contains other substances such as proteins, glucose and hormones), red blood cells and white blood cells. It’s important to monitor a patient’s blood levels and pressure leading to surgery to make sure that the patient has enough blood in his or her body to keep from bleeding out on the table.
    2) One key piece of information obtained from an autopsy is the patient’s cause of death. This is crucial for teaching doctors what a certain set of symptoms can mean under the circumstances of a similar patient in a differential diagnosis. Even if the diagnosis is correct, sometimes the patient can still die, in which case an autopsy is useful for showing medical personnel how an ailment can progress in the human body. Knowing this progression of the ailment can help doctors understand how to properly treat the disease should he or she encounter it again in another patient.

  14. 1) At the most basic level, blood is composed of plasma and blood cells. There are three types of blood cells in the circulatory system. Erythrocytes are red blood cells, leukocytes are white blood cells and platelets are blood cell fragments. The functions of these cells are to attack foreign cells, clot blood, and transport oxygen. Erythrocrytes look like flat disks with a central depression and resemble doughnuts. Erythrocrytes carry oxygen throughout the body. the inside of an erythrocryte is filled with a protein called hemoglobin that binds with oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to other parts of the body. Neutrophils, a type of Leukocyte, is part of the immune system because it attacks foreign cells. Platelets serve to clot blood. They are cell fragments and they have no nuclei. These cells are crucial for stopping blood loss due to injury. The blood condition of a patient must be constantly monitored because it is a key component of a patients health. The state of the blood often determines whether it is feasible to perform a certain procedure on a patient. Dr. Walters was able to recognize that a patient was in dire need based on her pulse and blood pressure.

    2) Autopsies are undoubtedly an invaluable part of medicine. It is understandable why humans, even doctors, are repelled by dead bodies, but in medicine death is just as important as life. It is true that a doctor’s job is to keep patients alive, but mistakes can only be understood by examining the results after something goes wrong. I personally would be fine with having my body autopsied, but I don’t think I can make greatly personal decision for someone else. The circumstances might change, however, if a death occurred very unexpectedly. In this case an autopsy would provide some closure.

  15. 1)Blood is composed of a fluid called plasma, which is approximately 90% water. Dissolved in the plasma are three different substances circulating to various parts of the body: metabolites and wastes (glucose, vitamins, hormones, and wastes), salts and ions, and proteins. The plasma also contains various specialized cells including red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the many cells of the body. There are several kinds of white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils), each with its unique function. The general role of all these kinds of white blood cells is to defend the body from foreign cells and infected cells. Last, but not least, the platelets in the plasma help to form blood clots.
    It is crucial for doctors to closely monitor their patient’s blood and blood pressure during the course of a treatment. Loss of too much blood or insufficient amounts of blood before an operation can lead to death. Lack of sufficient amounts of blood can lead to disastrous effects such as paleness, decrease in body temperature, production of sweat, and irrational thinking. If patients don’t have enough blood to circulate to their brain they cannot carry out the necessary functions. It is for this reason that doctors must closely monitor a patient’s blood and blood pressure.

    2)The most obvious reason autopsies are carried out is to determine the cause of death. But other information such is also gained from doing autopsies. By doing an autopsy on a patient, doctors can see the mistakes they have made (if any). Doctors can then learn from their mistakes and better their practice. Another reason autopsies are done is to learn and study the end result of diseases. Having direct contact with a diseased body, and being able to carry out various experiments with the diseased organs can greatly benefit the study of a disease.
    I would, without a doubt, consent to having a deceases family member autopsied by the medical staff. I personally don’t believe in the whole spiritual/ritual deal with burying dead bodies (after all their just going to rot and decompose in the ground). If I were to die, I would much rather that by body be put to good use. I would want to give medical students the opportunity to study whatever disease it may be, and hopefully bring them one step further to understanding the disease and maybe even finding a cure (if there isn’t already one).

  16. 1. The blood in our body is composed of plasma, a water solution, and other kinds of cells that circulate with plasma throughout the body. Blood plasma is 90% water, but metabolites, wastes, salts, ions, and proteins circulate the body in the blood plasma. There are three major types of cells in blood, and these are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and cell fragments called platelets. These cells have different important functions. Erythrocytes carry oxygen to the cells of the body because the protein hemoglobin is the interior of an erythrocyte. Leukocytes defend the body against foreign substances or microorganisms that may be invading the body. Platelets are cell fragments that are essential for blood clotting.
    Dr. Nolen focuses a whole chapter on blood because of its great importance in keeping the body healthy and functioning properly. As he noted in the first paragraph, a lack of blood could turn a "calm and collected" patient into a "cold, sweaty, and irrational" one. Because of the important substances dissolved into plasma, a loss of blood could be a deadly situation for a person. Monitoring blood and blood pressure of a patient can tell the doctor if something is wrong so the doctor can react quickly to save the patient from severe outcomes.
    2. Autopsies help doctors see their mistakes and to learn about the real problem that caused the person to die. They also allow doctors to investigate lesser known diseases and unusual cases, and by using autopsies, they can see the end results of a disease. This information could be crucial in treating future patients and preventing death. I am not sure that I would allow a family member to be autopsied. I know that they provide valuable information to doctors for preventing a similar death in the future, but I am not that comfortable with the idea of a family member being cut open for scientific study. It depends on the disease the family member had, because if it were a very rare disorder that would greatly expand the doctor's knowledge, then I might be more inclined to allow it.

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  18. 1.) Blood is an essential fluid that supplies all our organs and tissues with nutrients and carries away waste materials. About half of blood is plasma, mainly water containing nutrients like sugars, fats, and proteins, as well as vitamins and minerals. The rest is made of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

    Blood carries oxygen from the lungs to all the other tissues in the body and takes carbon dioxide and other wastes back to the lungs to be exhaled. Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates processed from food by the digestive system gets absorbed into the blood as well, and delivered to tissues for metabolism. The kidneys filter waste products (like uric acid from metabolism) out of the blood into urine. We also just learned that hormones, that regulate some bodily functions, are transported by blood, which enables organs far from each other to communicate via chemical signals.

    The white blood cells found in blood serve as an important part of the immune system. These cells are the body’s main response against invading bacteria and viruses, generally by identifying invading organisms as foreign, attaching to and destroying them. Blood carries cells called platelets for blood clotting to close wounds with a meshwork of protein, a clot. Blood is also essential for regulation of body temperature. Heat production and loss are balanced out by heat transfer via the bloodstream.

    Monitoring blood pressure is crucial during surgery, as it is an important indicator of the health of the circulatory system. Since any condition that dilates or contracts the arteries or any heart disease that interferes with its pumping power affects blood pressure, monitoring this can give valuable information to doctors deciding the defect in a patient.

    Not having enough blood can be enough to make anyone crazy. Nolen tells us that one woman, having lost too much blood, had gone into shock – sweaty and cold, with a faint and rapid pulse. If shock persists, local anemia can damage vital organs, such as the brain, heart, liver, and lungs.

    2.) Autopsies serve to advance medical knowledge – diseased organs and tissues can be examined for valuable information about the sickness and its effects on the body. Says Nolen, “…if we do not discover mistakes before we buried them, we’d never realize where we went wrong or even if we had.” Autopsies give pathologists the opportunity to see and study the end result of a disease, hopefully allowing them to learn something of value for them to use in treating future patients.

    I would only give permission to have a deceased family member autopsied if I knew that, of at least strongly felt that the deceased person would prefer such action be taken. Personally, I think that if any of my relatives contracted a fatal disease, he or she would allow an autopsy to be performed. Same goes for my own body. If fall subject to some rare fatal disease, by all means, disassemble my body and discover what you can. Hopefully, it’s for the good of science.

    Aspernemur ne more mortem, cur cura morbi mors est.

  19. 1. Blood is primarily composed of a combination of plasma, red blood cells, and various other functionary cells, such as the various cells of the immune system. Blood serves primarily as a transport system, bringing oxygen, sugars, minerals, and many other forms of sustenance to the various organs of the body. Blood also serves to transport waste away, and to the various means of removing it from the body. Hormones, chemical messengers throughout the body, are also transported by the blood.

    Monitoring blood pressure and blood flow is crucial during many different medical procedures, because it is and easy indicator of the condition of the patient in many circumstances, especially during invasive surgical procedures.

    Blood loss, in any large amount, has severe effects on the body, because of the lack of oxygen, fuel, and energy being distributed to the muscles and organs. People who lose too much blood become faint, sweaty, and frantic, and eventually pass out, and soon after die, essentially of suffocation.

    2. Autopsies serve to teach medical practitioners many things that could not otherwise be learned. The examinations can be much more invasive and clear in an autopsy, for obvious reasons. With autopsies, doctors and surgeons can learn of any mistakes they may have made, and correct them in the future, or otherwise learn more exact causes of death, and use this knowledge to improve the way we care for people in the future.

    I would have no qualms about my own body being autopsied, in fact in many ways I would preffer it. As for my relatives, I don;t know how many of them would feel, but I doubt any have any qualms about it either, by virtue of the simple fact they they won;t be using the body any more. And it would be an effective means to keep people from turning into dangerous zombies.

  20. 1. Blood is made up of a fluid called plasma. Plasma is a solution of water with an addition of different substances: metabolites, wastes, Salts/ions, and proteins. Blood is made up of fluid, but consists of many different cells as well which circulate through the blood stream to different parts of the body. The main types of blood cells in the plasma are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood carries these very important cells throughout the entire body in order to allow these cells to carry out their main functions. The red blood cells are transport cells for oxygen in the plasma, while the white blood cells are used to defend the body from invading bacteria and pathogens. Finally, Platelets function to help blood clot in the body in order to form seals to protect the body when it is damaged.
    Blood monitoring is really important in medicine because of the huge affects it has on the body. Blood has so many functions for the body that without it or without its proper functioning the body can show a variety of different symptoms. Just as the young lady seemed to be crazy, she simply needed a blood transfusion and was completely back to normal. Monitoring a person's blood pressure and level is really important as a doctor because without knowledge that your patients blood work is fine, it becomes exponentially harder to make a correct assessment of someone's condition and symptoms.

    2. An autopsy is a very valuable medical tool, which allows doctors to understand the cause of a patient's death. This means studying a deceased patient's organs in order to find the cause of his/her death. At the beginning of this chapter, doctor Williams examined a heart and realized the cause of his/her death, an acute infarction. This autopsy allows a doctor to see what went wrong and is valuable tool to allow a doctor to better him/herself in order to reduce his/her misinterpretations of symptoms.
    Im not sure if I would allow my family member to be dissected, I wouldnt like knowing my family member was cut apart for research, however if the doctors do believe that their research could find out a possible genetic trend for the rest of my family i might. It definitely depends on if the cause could affect my own family by possibly being a genetic defect or disease.

  21. 1. Blood is composed of plasma and blood cells. The plasma is mostly composed of water, glucose, carbon dioxide, mineral ions, platelets, and blood cells. The blood cells are split up into two categories, the red and white blood cells. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin and are the more abundant of the two. The hemoglobin allows the red blood cells to transport oxygen. The white blood cells are used primarily to fight parasites and infections. Blood is used to transport necessary nutrients and oxygen and to get rid of waste from cells.
    Monitoring blood and blood pressure is important in maintaining a patient’s course of treatment. This is because blood often tells you information about the patient that a doctor can't see with the naked eye. An example of this would be the woman who came into Bellevue complaining about her stomach. By monitoring her blood, the doctor could see that she was losing blood quickly and something had to be done fast. Likewise, monitoring blood in this situation would tell the doctor why this lady was acting strangely, because not enough blood was getting to her brain.
    2. Autopsies allow doctors and students to learn what went wrong and how it could go better next time. This information gathered by autopsies is information that could potentially save lives in the future. Because autopsies give an entirely different view of organs that you could not obtain while the patient is alive, they provide many opportunities to learn and improve. I would give permission for a family member to be autopsied because I believe in furthering the education of students and doctors.

  22. 1.)Blood, put very simply, is a fluid that caries nutrients to cells and waste away from cells. Blood can be divided into plasma; which caries glucose, ions, Carbon Dioxide and other things, and blood cells. Blood cells can be categorized as white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. White blood cells help protect the body. They destroy dangerous foreign objects (pathogens) and remove cellular debris. Red blood cells carry oxygen through the blood to the cells. Platelets help blood clot when there is a cut or scrape any where on or in the body.
    Blood can you can tell you a lot of information so its a very useful tool when monitoring someone. The blood can tell you things the patient couldn't. Monitoring blood pressure help you figure out how a patient is doing. If they have fast or slow blood pressure you no something is not right. Figuring out if someone has lost a lot of blood is also very important to know and if you didn't know that the person could easily die.
    2)Autopsies can be extremely helpful in figuring out how a patient died. The knowledge gained from autopsies can help people in the future. You cant cut someone open and study their organs while their alive but with autopsies you can study the patients organs. I would not have a problem with doctors doing an autopsy. If it can help doctors learn and save lives in the future then I think its a good thing.

  23. 1)About half of blood in humans is made up of plasma. Plasma is a liquid substance which is mostly water. The other part (less than 10%) consists of glucose, proteins, lipids, and other compounds. Blood cells are inside the plasma (not part of it). There are red and white blood cells, as well as platelets. The red blood cells allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be transported in the body. White blood cells help protect the body from infections, and platelets help the blood to clot. Monitoring blood in patients is extremely important because blood is essential to living. Also, without enough blood people can act strangely or wildly in ways that could be distracting from their real medical problem, such as the pregnant women who Dr. Nolen thought was crazy.

    2)From an autopsy, doctors can learn the cause of the patient's death. They can also learn if the doctor treating or operating on them made any mistakes that resulted in the patient's death, and if so, what it was. Autopsies can also provide more information about the patients condition before their death. I would probably give permission for a family member who died to be autopsied, Because it could help doctors learn more about a disease they had, or if they made a mistake, knowing how to do an operation or treatment better might save others in the future. However if that family member for some reason had any bad feelings about this kind of thing and would not have wanted it to happen, then of course I would not be ok with it.

  24. 1) Blood is composed of plasma and three principal types of cells that float around in the plasma. Plasma consists of dissolved glucose, vitamins, hormones, and waste. Its composition is similar to that of seawater in how it has sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. 90% of plasma is water. Plasma carries a protein called serum albumin which helps prevent osmosis from occurring and prevents the blood plasma from losing the water. The main cells that blood contain are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Erythrocytes, also called red blood cells, are responsible for carrying oxygen to cells in the body. They also contain a protein called hemoglobin that binds oxygen in the lungs. Typically 45% of blood is occupied by red blood cells. Leukocytes, or white blood cells, on the other hand, are only 1% of blood. They attack foreign cells by releasing a chemical that kills all neighboring cells. Lastly, platelets plug up ruptured blood vessels. Blood clotting results when they release a protein into the blood. Monitoring blood and blood pressure is so crucial to maintaining a patient's course of treatment because blood plays such a big role in the human body. Without blood there is no oxygen flowing in the body which can cause conditions similar to those of the patient who Dr. Nolen thought was just crazy.

    2) Autopsies allow doctors to find out what caused the person to die. They are useful because they let also let doctors find out what they may have done wrong in trying to save a person. By finding out what they did wrong, doctors can learn from their mistakes. For me personally, I would give permission to have a diseased family member autopsied because not only would an autopsy provide more information about the cause of death, but the autopsy would be able to help the doctors help others more efficiently in the future.

  25. 1)Blood is basically comprised of fourcomponents: Plasma, White Blood Cells, Platelets, and Red Blood Cells. Plasma is a yellowish colored liquid that makes up 55% of blood. (When blood is centrifuged, the plasma is on the top of the tube because the cells and cell fragments from blood are heavier and sink to the bottem.) 90% of plasma is water. Plasma carries electrolytes, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and even waste throught the body. White blood cells, also known as Leukocytes, do most of their work in tissues even though they are transported by blood. White blood cells can be seen as your own defensive team. They fight off infection and foreign intruders to your body. The Platelets are not complete cells, but rather pieces of other larger cells, they create bloodclots and scabs. Red Blood Cells, also known as Erythrocytes, are biconcave disks that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Blood is very important and should be checked regularly because it can serve as a key indicator that something is wrong with the body. Monitoring blood pressure tells if your blood pressure is too high or too low. It can also detect if you are bleeding internally. Also, it is already known that blood carries many minerals disolved in it. Checking blood can tell if there is an excess or shortage of a paticular mineral in the blood. These disbalances can be a signal of an underlying disease or condition.

    2)An autoptsy allows doctors to find the cause of death of a patient. Irregularities in organ color and size can be obvious indicators what happened. But blood tests, dissections, and closer examinations of the body can prove the exact cause of a death. It can even be used to tell if someone died, or if someone was murdered. I do not think I would hesitate to let someone be autoptsied. 1: If it is someone in my family and I don't know how they died, they could have a underlying genetic disorder that I could have. This way I could know if I am at risk for something I previously would not have thought of. 2. My body is nothing but flesh and blood. Once my soul is gone, I don't think I can stake a claim to my body. And it isn't like I could preserve my body. If I hadn't gotten an autopsy I would have probably been cremated or left rotting in the ground anyways.

  26. 1.) Blood is comprised of a few components. Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma. On a side note, I had a science class once where they asked the real color of blood minus the cells and it was yellow (the plasma). Blood bring nutrients to the cell and takes waste away from it. Plasma carried all the good stuff through the body, like proteins, fats and carbs. White blood cells are important because they are the "soldiers" of the body, fighting all sorts of infections and viruses. Red blood cells carry oxygen and CO2 to the cells. Platelets clog scrapes and cuts.
    Monitoring blood is really important. Almost everything else can fail, but if the blood is bad then you're in trouble. Blood tests help reveal what could still be wrong with a patient. Blood pressure levels are also helpful when monitoring a patient. Blood loss can also be devastating and not enough blood in the brain can cause irreparable damage.

    2.) An autopsy gives plenty of useful information to the doctors. It gives them a real chance to discover what actually happened to the patient. They could then apply that knowledge to future patients.
    I would give permission to the staff to autopsy if it was an odd case or they couldn't figure something out. Anything that's odd. However, if they just wanted to, I would have to consider it. It would also depend if the person themselves had left any suggestion as to what they would have wanted.

  27. Blood! Plasma is the liquid part and contains nutrients. White blood cells (leukocytes!) are the biggest, baddest part of the immune system. Red blood cells (erythrocytes!) convey oxygen in hæmoglobin. Platelets make scabs. And the function of blood is to transport all that important stuff to cells, obviously. And a patient's blood pressure, as well as other factors like the levels of waste products circulating in it, acts as a diagnostic for their condition.

    2. An autopsy of any body (or 'anybody', ha) can be useful for increasing the body of medical knowledge; those who died of or were subject to rare diseases are obviously more valuable than more mundane cases, however. Still, I would suggest that allowing your body to be donated for autopsy purposes is always a right choice, barring silly superstitions, religious, sentimental, or otherwise.